References for Theme: Concepts of Work
- Applebaum, Herbert
- Chamberlain, James
(p.14) I define work very broadly as the manipulation of matter, symbols, and affect through the application of physical, intellectual, or emotional energy. I do not expect that a life wihout work is either possible or desirable, but I believe we can adjust the way we organise and experience work and how it relates to community.
- Cholbi, Michael
"The Duty to Work"
(p.2) work is a surprisingly difficult matter to define. Indeed, it is unlikely that there is a single ahistorical understanding of the nature of work, nor is there only one way a duty to work might be grounded. In the Christian tradition, for example, a duty to work has sometimes been rooted in the imperative that our earthly existence should glorify and serve God, or perfect the created world by making it fit for human needs. However, the dialectical aims of our discussion are not historical. Our concern is instead to ascertain whether individuals, in the socioeconomic conditions that prevail in...
- Clot, Yves
- Corno, Lyn; Xu, Jianzhong
"Homework as the Job of Childhood"
- Cukier, Alexis
- Deranty, Jean-Philippe
"What Is Work? Key Insights From the Psychodynamics of Work"
- Descola, Philippe
Beyond Nature and Culture
(p.322) Marx’s position is indicative of the more general tendency of modern thought to regard production as the element that determines the material conditions of social life and as the principal way for humans to transform nature and, by doing so, transform themselves. Whether or not one is a Marxist, it is now commonly thought that the history of humanity is primarily founded on the dynamism introduced by a succession of ways of producing use value and exchange value of the materials that the environment provides. But it is fair to question whether this preeminence ascribed to the process of productive objectivization applies generally to all societies. To be...
Beyond Nature and Culture
(p.323) The idea of production as the imposition of form upon inert matter is simply an attenuated expression of the schema of action that rests upon two interdependent premises: the preponderance of an individualized intentional agent as the cause of the coming- to- be of beings and things, and the radical differencebetween the ontological status of the creator and that of whatever he produces. According to the paradigm of creation- production, the subject is autonomous and his intervention in the world reflects his personal characteristics: whether he is a god, a demiurge, or a simple mortal, he produces his oeuvre according to a preestablished plan and with a defi...
Beyond Nature and Culture
(p.325) As a way of conceiving action on the world and a specific relationship in which a subject generates an object, production thus does not have a universal applicability. It presupposes the existence of a clearly individualized agent who projects his interiority on to indeterminate matter in order to give form to it and thus bring into existence an entity for which he alone is responsible and that he can then appropriate for his own use or exchange for other realities of the same type. Now, to return to our two examples: the production model does not correspond either to the concept of a continuous autopoietic process as...
- Diderot, D'alembert
(p.567) c'est l'occupation journalière à laquelle l'homme est condamné par son besoin, et à laquelle il doit en même temps sa santé, sa subsistance, sa sérénité, son bon sens et sa vertu peut-être.
- Ege, Ragip
- England, George W; Harpaz, Itzhak
"How working is defined: National contexts and demographic and organizational role influences"
- Firth, Raymond
- Frayne, David
The Refusal of Work
(p.20) In this book I will follow André Gorz’s observation that the prevailing cultural understandingof ‘work’ in modern capitalist societies is that it is an activity carried out for a wage. Colloquially, it seems that the label ‘work’ is most often used to distinguish paid from unpaid activities, andrefers to the operations performed in ‘jobs’ – things that we ‘go to’ and ‘come home from’. Illustrating this definition, Gorz suggested that a market gardener can be said to work, whilst a miner growing leeks in his back garden is carrying out a freely chosen activity (Gorz, 1982: 1). Elsewhere, Gorz has...
- Freeman, Caroline
- Freshwater, Dawn; Cahill, Jane; Esterhuizen, Philip; Muncey, Tessa; Smith, Helen
- Freyssenet, Michel
"The Emergence, Centrality and End of Work"
- Godelier, Maurice
- Gorz, André
Paths to Paradise
(p.1) Work has not always existed in the way in which it is currently understood. It came into being at the same time as capitalists and proletarians. It means an activity carried out: for someone else; in return for a wage; according to forms and time schedules laid down by the person paying the wage; and for a purpose not chosen by the worker. A market gardener 'works'; a miner growing leeks in his back garden carries out a freely chosen activity. (p.1)
- Henwood, Doug
- Hélène, D’almeida-Topor; Monique, Lakroum; Spittler, Gerd
- Ingold, Tim
- Jaeggi, Rahel
"Pathologies of Work"
"What we see, then, are very classical phenomena of the devaluation and down-skilling of work due to working conditions that make workers interchangeable with respect to their skills and personalities. Alternatively, we are confronted with the universally flexible worker, whose free time is turned into work time and whose creative potential can only be developed at the cost of investing her whole personality in it. Whereas in classical industrial work it was a certain inflexibility (in the Fordist division of labor) that led to the fragmentation of tasks and the suffering of employees, today’s employees suffer on account of the...
- Kambartel, Friedrich
- Komlosy, Andrea
- Lewis, Mary Daly, Jane; Daly, Mary; Lewis, Jane
- Lis, Catharina
- Negri, Antonio
- Nippert-Eng, Christena
- Povinelli, Elizabeth A
- Rancière, Jacques
An occupation is not simply the practice of an activity, it is also a way of being in time and space. In this sense, the workday is the everyday necessity that constantly reproduces the division of temporalities which is a division of forms of life. But it is also the concrete flowing of hours and minutes - one after the other – wherein a possible gap can be played out in relation to that normal reproduction: a possible work of the body and the mind regains, against the constraint of space, the deviation of a gaze that leads thought elsewhere,...
- Smith, Nicholas H
- Thomas, Carol
- Van Parijs, Philippe
Real Freedom for All
(p.138) For an activity to qualify as work, it must be one that is geared to the production (whether pleasurable or not) of a benefit that is external to the performance of the activity itself—and is, therefore, also capable of being enjoyed by others. This benefit need not be a material object. It can consist of the songs one sings no less than in the potatoes one grows. And it can also consist of both consumption and production goods. But pure play cannot be work: one can only work when playing football if one does so, or trains for doing so,...
Real Freedom for All
(p.98) One old objection to distribution in proportion to work is that it conflicts with efficiency even in the weak sense of Pareto-optimality, by providing excessive incentives to work. …Far more serious are the tricky conceptual difficulties unavoidably raised by any approach that gives a key role to the notions of work and leisure. What shall we count as work? (Cleaning one's clients' shoes, cleaning one's children's shoes, cleaning one's own shoes, cleaning one's doll's shoes?) How should hours of work be made comparable? (Should one hour of effort-intensive work be equivalent to one hour of relaxed work, one hour of...
- Voß, G Günter
"Kapitel I Arbeit als Grundlage menschlicher Existenz: Was ist Arbeit? Zum Problem eines allgemeinen Arbeitsbegriffs"
- Weeks, Kathi
The Problem with Work
(p.14) In this book, the label "work" will refer to productive cooperation organized around, but not necessarily confined to, the privileged model of waged labor. What counts as work, which forms of productive activity will be included and how each will be valued, are a matter of historical dispute. Certainly the questions of whether or not various forms of productive activity - including some unwaged forms - will be recognized as workand at what rate they will be compensated have long been at the forefront of class, race, and gender struggles in and beyond the United States.
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