For Work / Against Work
Debates on the centrality of work

References for Theme: Science and Work

  • Borg, George
  • Kisselburgh, Lorraine G; Berkelaar, Brenda L; Buzzanell, Patrice M
  • Mak, Kit-Kay; Pichika, Mallikarjuna Rao
  • Marx, Karl
    • Grundrisse (1993)
      (p.699) [It is,] hence, the tendency of capital to give production a scientific character; direct labour [is]reduced to a mere moment of this process. As with the transformation of value into capital, so does itappear in the further development of capital, that it presupposes a certain given historical developmentof the productive forces on one side -- science too [is] among these productive forces -- and, on theother, drives and forces them further onwards. Thus the quantitative extent and the effectiveness (intensity) to which capital is developed as fixed capital indicate the general degree to which capital is developed as capital, as power...
    • Grundrisse (1993)
      (p.700) To the degree that labour time -- the mere quantity of labour -- is posited by capital as the soledeterminant element, to that degree does direct labour and its quantity disappear as the determinantprinciple of production -- of the creation of use values -- and is reduced both quantitatively, to a smallerproportion, and qualitatively, as an, of course, indispensable but subordinate moment, compared togeneral scientific labour, technological application of natural sciences, on one side, and to the generalproductive force arising from social combination [Gliederung] in total production on the other side -- acombination which appears as a natural fruit of...
    • Grundrisse (1993)
      (p.704) In machinery, the appropriation of living labour by capital achieves a direct reality in this respect as well: It is, firstly, the analysis and application of mechanical and chemical laws, arising directly out of science, which enables the machine to perform the same labour as that previously performed by the worker. However, the development of machinery along this path occurs only when large industry has already reached a higher stage, and all the sciences have been pressed into the service of capital; and when, secondly, the available machinery itself already provides great capabilities. Invention then becomes a business, and the application of science to direct production itself...
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