For Work / Against Work
Debates on the centrality of work

References for Theme: Leisure

  • Adorno, Theodor
    • Free Time (2001)
      (p.187) The question concerning free time, what people do with it and what opportunities could eventually evolve from it, must not be posed as an abstract generalisation. Incidentally the expression ‘free time’ or ‘spare time’ originated only recently – its precursor, the term ‘leisure’ (Muβe) denoted the privilege of an unconstrained, comfortable life-style, hence something qualitatively different and far more auspicious – and it indicates a specific difference, that of time which is neither free nor spare, which is occupied by work, and which moreover one could  designate as heteronomous. Free time is shackled to its opposite. Indeed the oppositional relation in which it stands imbues free time with certain essential...
    • Free Time (2001)
      (p.188) even where the hold of the spell is relaxed, and people are at least subjectively convinced that they are acting of their own free will, this will itself is shaped by the very same forces which they are seeking to escape in their hours without work. The question which today would really do justice to the phenomenon of free time would befollowing: what becomes of free time, where productivity of labour continues to rise, under persisting conditions of unfreedom, that is, under relations of production into which people are born, and which prescribe the rules of human existence today just as they always have done? Free time has...
    • Free Time (2001)
      (p.189) Time and time again, when questioned or interviewed, one is asked about one’s hobbies. When the illustratedweeklies report on the life of one of those giants of the culture industry, they rarely forego the opportunity to report, with varying degrees of intimacy, on the hobbies of the person in question. I am shocked by the question when I come up against it. I have no hobby. Not that I am the kind of workaholic, who is incapable of doing anything with his time but applying himself industriously to the required task. But, as far as my activities beyond the bounds of my recognised profession are  concerned, I...
    • Free Time (2001)
      (p.190) If we suppose with Marx that in bourgeois society labour power has become a commodity in which labour is consequently reified, then the expression ‘hobby’ amounts to a paradox: that human condition which sees itself as the opposite of reification, the oasis of unmediated life within a completely mediated total system, has itself been reified just like the rigid distinction between labour and free time. The latter is a continuation of the forms of profit-oriented social life. Just as the term ‘show business’ is today taken utterly seriously, the irony in the expression ‘leisure industry’ has now been quite forgotten. It is widely known but no less true...
    • Free Time (2001)
      (p.192) Whenever behaviour in spare time is truly autonomous, determined by free people for themselves, boredom rarely figures; it need not figure in activities which cater merely for the desire for pleasure, any more than it does in those free time activities which are reasonable and meaningful in themselves. Even fooling about need not be crass, and can be enjoyed as a blessed release from the throes of self-control. If people were able to make their own decisions about themselves and their lives, if they were not caught up in the realm of the eversame, they would not have to be bored. Boredom is the reflection of objective dullness. 
  • Cleary, Lilly
  • Danaher, John
  • Eisenberger, Robert
  • Elkington, S; Stebbins, R
  • Foucault, Michel
    • The Punitive Society. Lectures at the Collège de France 1972-1973 (2015)
      (p.189) Certainly, the nineteenth century did not invent idleness, but one could write a whole history of laziness, that is to say not of leisure activities—which is how idleness has been codified, institutionalized, as a certain way of distributing non-work across the cycles of production, integrating idleness into the economy by taking it up and controlling it within a system of consumption—but of the ways one evades the obligation of work, steals labor-power, and avoids letting oneself be held and pinned down by the production apparatus. Now, if a history of laziness is possible, it is because it is not at issue in the same way in the different struggles...
  • Goodin, Robert E; Rice, James Mahmud; Parpo, Antti; Eriksson, Lina
  • Harpaz, Itzhak
    • "Expressing a wish to continue or stop working as related to the meaning of work" (2002)
      Kaplan (1985) reports that in his study of 576 lottery winners in the USA, only 11% of them ceased working. Similarly, in a recent study, Arvey, Harpaz, and Hui (2001) disclosed that more than 86% of an American sample that won an average of US$3.39 million (sd US$5.08 million) in the lottery, continued working. Hence, these findings are supportive evidence that the hypothetical ‘lottery question’ may in fact be regarded as an accurate indicative of actual behavioural intention in the work place” (p 179-80)
  • Haworth, John T; Veal, Anthony J
  • Hunnicutt, Benjamin
  • Hunnicutt, Benjamin K
  • Hunnicutt, Benjamin Kline
  • Keynes, John Maynard
    • "Economic Possibilities for Our Grandchildren" (2010)
      Thus for the first time since his creation man will be faced with his real, hispermanent problem-how to use his freedom from pressing economic cares,how to occupy the leisure, which science and compound interest will have wonfor him, to live wisely and agreeably and well.The strenuous purposeful money-makers may carry all of us along with theminto the lap of economic abundance. But it will be those peoples, who can keepalive, and cultivate into a fuller perfection, the art of life itself and do not sellthemselves for the means of life, who will be able to enjoy the abundance whenit comes.Yet...
  • MacArov, David
  • Marx, Karl
    • Grundrisse (1993)
      (p.705) Labour no longer appears so much to be included within the production process; rather,the human being comes to relate more as watchman and regulator to the production process itself.(What holds for machinery holds likewise for the combination of human activities and the developmentof human intercourse.) No longer does the worker insert a modified natural thing [Naturgegenstand] asmiddle link between the object [Objekt] and himself; rather, he inserts the process of nature,transformed into an industrial process, as a means between himself and inorganic nature, mastering it.He steps to the side of the production process instead of being its chief actor. In...
    • Grundrisse (1993)
      (p.708) The creation of a large quantity of disposable time apart from necessary labour time for societygenerally and each of its members (i.e. room for the development of the individuals’ full productiveforces, hence those of society also), this creation of not-labour time appears in the stage of capital, as ofall earlier ones, as not-labour time, free time, for a few. What capital adds is that it increases the surpluslabour time of the mass by all the means of art and science, because its wealth consists directly in theappropriation of surplus labour time; since value directly its purpose, not use value. It...
    • Grundrisse (1993)
      (p.712) It goes without saying, by the way, that direct labour time itself cannot remain in the abstract antithesis to free time in which it appears from the perspective of bourgeois economy. Labour cannot become play, as Fourier would like, although it remains his great contribution to have expressed the suspension not of distribution, but of the mode of production itself, in a higher form, as the ultimate object. Free time – which is both idle time and time for higher activity – has naturally transformed its possessor into a different subject, and he then enters into the direct production process as this different subject. This process is...
  • Richards, Vernon
  • Rojek, Chris
  • Rose, Julie
  • Russell, Bertrand; Others,
  • Shippen, N
  • Snir, Raphael; Harpaz, Itzhak
  • Stebbins, Robert
  • Stebbins, Robert A
  • Veal, Tony
  • Veal, Tony; Others,
  • de Grazia, Sebastian
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