For Work / Against Work
Debates on the centrality of work

"Rulers of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of artificial intelligence"

by Kaplan, Andreas; Haenlein, Michael (2020)


A decade ago, we published an article in Business Horizons about the challenges and opportunities of social media with a call to action: “Users of the world, unite!” To celebrate its anniversary, we look at artificial intelligence and the need to create the rules necessary for peaceful coexistence between humanity and AI. Hence, we now are urging: “Rulers of the world, unite!” In this article, we outline six debates surrounding AI in areas like artificial superintelligence, geographical progress, and robotics; in doing so, we shed light on what is fact and what is utopia. Then, using the PESTEL framework, we talk about the six dilemmas of AI and its potential threat and use. Finally, we provide six directions on the future of AI regarding its requirements and expectations, looking at enforcement, employment, ethics, education, entente, and evolution. Understanding AI’s potential future will enable governments, corporations, and societies at large (i.e., the rulers of this world) to prepare for its challenges and opportunities. This way, we can avoid a scenario in which we return in 10 years to write the article: “Dreamers of the world, unite!”


Artificial Intelligence, Artificial Superintelligence, Human-Machine Symbiosis, Machine Learning, Robotics, Work Displacement



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